**Passing** is juggling between two or more people. For basic 6-object passing, two people stand facing each other, each holding three objects. On a signal, both start juggling in time with each other. To pass, each person replaces a normal solo juggling throw with a throw that goes directly across to the other person. Both people do this at the same time, for example with their right hands, and then receive the incoming passes with their left hands. From the point of view of each person's pattern, the incoming pass behaves exactly like a normal crossing throw coming from that person's pattern.

The term "pass" may refer to either throwing an object to another person, or handing an object directly from one hand to the other (i.e. a hand off, feed, zip), as you would do in a shower. The term "self" in a passing context is used for any throw that isn't a pass (throwing an object so that you catch it yourself), but it can also mean throwing an object so that it is caught not just by the same person but by the same hand (a non-crossing throw). In a passing context, a non-crossing self throw is sometimes called a "heff".

## Patterns[]

For any given number of objects, similar passing patterns to those used for that number can also be done with four more objects. For example, the patterns for 6 object passing are the same as the patterns for 10, 14, and 18. 2-counts for each of these numbers are done with all the throws at the same height and with each person juggling asynch, with the right hands synchronized and the left hands synchronized.

### Even number of objects[]

In the basic patterns for 2-person passing with an even number of objects, each person does a pass every few throws while juggling in a cascade, a wimpy pattern, or a fountain. The two patterns are synchronized, so that both right hands throw at the same time, and both left hands throw at the same time. If both people are juggling synchronous patterns, all four hands throw at the same time. The difficulty of the patterns increase as the passes become more frequent.

- 6-count: Beginning passers usually start passing 6 objects with a pass on every 6th throw. The same two objects are passed every time they're thrown with the right hands (assuming the pattern is done right-handed).
- 4-count aka "every others": This is a popular 6 object passing pattern where every 4th throw (
*every other*right hand throw) is a pass. With 8 balls it can be done either entirely in the wimpy pattern, alternating between throwing a right hand pass and a left hand crossing throw, and then two crossing throws, or the two throws between passes can be non-crossing, so the pattern alternates between two throws of a wimpy pattern with one hand throwing to the other person, and two throws of a synch fountain. The second method is the one that would be used for rings and clubs since the wimpy pattern is impractical for those props. - 3-count: This is an ambidextrous 6 object passing pattern where every 3rd throw is a pass so that the same two objects are passed every time they're thrown. An 8 object 3-count is done by passing every third throw in an asynch fountain, with one juggler's right hand throwing at the same time as the other juggler's left hand.
- 2-count aka "solids" or "everies": This is a popular pattern for passing any number of objects. Every right hand throw is a pass. An 8 object 2-count can be done synch (in a wimpy pattern) or asynch (in a 53 pattern). Normally asynch numbers can also be done in synch 2-count by making the passes higher than the other throws, e.g. 10 objects in a (6x,4x) pattern.
- 1-count aka "ultimate passing" or "ultimates": This is an ambidextrous passing pattern where every throw is a pass. This results in two cascades or wimpy patterns each done with one juggler's right hand and the other juggler's left hand. It can be done asynch or synch. In a 6 object synch 1-count, the jugglers take turns throwing with both hands at the same time. In an 8 object synch 1-count, all four hands throw at the same time. In an 8 object asynch 1-count, one juggler's right hand throws at the same time as the other juggler's left hand. Collisions can be avoided in an 8 object 1-count by having one person throw passes on the outside of the pattern and the other person throw passes on the inside of the pattern.

### Odd number of objects[]

Passing patterns for odd numbers of objects are more complicated because those numbers can't be done by passing between solo patterns of half the total number of objects. For odd numbers, patterns with less frequent passes are not necessarily easier. In most odd-number patterns the jugglers' hands are still synchronized, but not always in the same ways as in even-number patterns.

- 1-count: With odd numbers of objects, a 1-count can be done with every throw the same height, and only one hand throwing at a time. One person throws diagonal passes, and the other person throws straight passes. Both people juggle at a normal speed, each throwing in between the other's throws. The order the hands throw in depends on the number of objects being juggled. For a number just above a multiple of 4 (5, 9, 13, 17), the throwing order is: diagonal-passer's right hand, straight-passer's right hand, diagonal-passer's left hand, straight-passer's left hand. For a number just below a multiple of 4 (7, 11, 15, 19), the throwing order is: diagonal-passer's right hand, straight-passer's left hand, diagonal-passer's left hand, straight-passer's right hand. The straight-passer does their first throw (a pass) right after the diagonal-passer's first throw. If the diagonal-passer starts with their right hand, the straight-passer's first pass is with their left hand for 7 objects, or their right hand for 9 objects.
- A less collision-prone way to do a 1-count with an odd number of objects is to have the diagonal-passer throw higher than the straight-passer. (The two jugglers should throw at the heights of the basic solo patterns for two consecutive numbers that add up to the number of objects being passed, e.g. 3s and 4s for passing 7, or 4s and 5s for passing 9.) In this kind of 1-count, the hands are synchronized: for a number just above a multiple of 4, one person's right hand throws at the same time as the other person's left hand, and for a number just below a multiple of 4, both right hands throw at the same time, and both left hands throw at the same time. To start the pattern, the diagonal-passer throws one object first, and then the straight-passer makes their first throw at the same time as the diagonal-passer makes their second throw.

- 2-count: The 2-count pattern for 7 balls is the same as a 2-count with 6 balls except the passes are at 4 ball height instead of 3 ball height, and the hands are synchronized differently: one person's right hand throws at the same time as the other person's left hand. To start the pattern, the person holding more balls throws one pass first, and then the other person makes their first throw (a pass) at the same time as the first person makes their second throw.
- A 9 ball 2-count is the same as an 8 ball 2-count except the passes are at 5 ball height instead of 4 ball height, and the hands are synchronized differently: the jugglers take turns throwing with both hands at the same time. Like the 7 ball 2-count, the pattern starts with the person holding more balls throwing one pass first, before the other person starts throwing.

- 3-count: A 3-count for odd numbers is similar to a 1-count for odd numbers (the first method above): one person throws diagonal passes, and the other person throws straight passes, and only one hand throws at a time. The throwing order for the hands in a 7 object 3-count is the same as in a 9 object 1-count, and vice versa. In a 7 object 3-count, the throws are passed 4.5s and non-passed (crossing) 3s, and in a 9 object 3 count, the throws are passed 5.5s and non-passed (non-crossing) 4s. The straight-passer does their first throw (a pass) right after the diagonal-passer's second throw. If the diagonal-passer starts with their right hand, the straight-passer's first pass is with their left hand for 7 objects, or their right hand for 9 objects.
- 4-count: A 4-count for an odd number of objects is the same as a 4-count for the even number just below that number (including the way the hands are synchronized) except the passes are higher than the other throws (e.g. passed 5s and non-passed 3s for 7 objects, or passed 6s and non-passed 4s for 9 objects), and the two jugglers don't pass at the same time: one person's right hand throws a pass at the same time as the other person's right hand throws a non-passed throw. To start the pattern, the person holding more objects starts juggling by throwing a pass, and the other person makes their first throw (a pass) at the same time as the first person makes their third throw.
- 6-count: In a 6-count with an odd number, each person alternates between doing three throws of the basic asynch solo patterns for two different numbers that add up to the number of objects being used in the passing pattern. A 7 ball 6-count alternates between three 4 ball throws and three 3 ball throws, and a 9 ball 6-count alternates between three 5 ball throws and three 4 ball throws. Each time one of the jugglers does a set of three higher throws, the last of the three throws is a pass (a straight pass if it's at an even-number height, and a diagonal pass if it's at an odd-number height). To start the pattern, the person holding more objects starts juggling by doing three high throws (the last of which is a pass), and then the other person makes their first throw (also starting with three high throws) at the same time as the first person makes their fourth throw.

### Three hands[]

There are three basic patterns for passing with three hands:

- For a number of objects that is a multiple of 3, all three hands throw at the same time.
- For a number of objects that is 1 more than a multiple of 3, if the objects are thrown from one hand to the next hand in a counter-clockwise order, the throwing order for the hands is counter-clockwise.
- For a number of objects that is 1 less than a multiple of 3, if the objects are thrown from one hand to the next hand in a counter-clockwise order, the throwing order for the hands is clockwise.

### Three people[]

The triangle and the feed are two popular 3-person passing patterns. In the triangle, each person throws to the person to the right, so if the jugglers pass in a 2-count, the objects go around in a circuit between the three people. In the feed, one person does a 2-count, passing alternately to the other two people who are doing 4-counts, and never passing to each other.

## World records[]

Passing records are measured by the number of caught passes. Self throws (objects thrown and caught by the same juggler) are not counted. (Otherwise, two jugglers could set a passing record by each making a single pass to their partner and then juggling solo patterns the rest of the time.)

Records listed on this wiki must be done with a greater number of objects than the number of hands used (or for diabolo records, the number of strings used, with each person using one string).

Passing world records with publicly available video evidence:

### Balls[]

**2-person passing**

- 11 balls: 1771 passes caught by Noah Schmeissner and Doug Sayers in 2024 (video)
- 12 balls: 561 passes caught by Noah Schmeissner and Doug Sayers in 2023 (video)
- 13 balls: 567 passes caught by Noah Schmeissner and Doug Sayers in 2024 (video)
- 14 balls: 252 passes caught by Noah Schmeissner and Doug Sayers in 2023 (video)
- 15 balls: 116 passes caught by Noah Schmeissner and Doug Sayers in 2024 (video)
- 16 balls: 68 passes caught by Noah Schmeissner and Doug Sayers in 2024 (video)
- 17 balls: 41 passes caught by Tom Whitfield and Doug Sayers in 2023 (video)
- 18 balls: 30 passes caught by Dan Wood and Tom Whitfield in 2022 (video)
- 19 balls: 32 passes caught by Dan Wood and Tom Whitfield in 2023 (video)
- 20 balls: 27 passes caught by Dan Wood and Tom Whitfield in 2019 (video)
- 21 balls: 22 passes caught by Dan Wood and Tom Whitfield in 2022 (video)
- 22 balls: 22 passes caught by Dan Wood and Tom Whitfield in 2018 (video) and by Dave Leahy and Tom Whitfield in 2019 (video)

### Rings[]

**2-person passing**

- 11 rings: 1201 passes caught by Thomas Dietz and Dominik Harant in 2015 (video)
- 12 rings: 300 passes caught by Dominik Harant and Manuel Mitasch in 2020 (video)
- 13 rings: 170 passes caught by Thomas Dietz and Dominik Harant in 2015 (video)
- 14 rings: 59 passes caught by Dominik Harant and Manuel Mitasch in 2013 (video) and by Chris Hodge and Jonah Botvinick-Greenhouse in 2024 (video)
- 15 rings: 52 passes caught by Thomas Dietz and Dominik Harant in 2018 (video)
- 16 rings: 32 passes caught by Dominik Harant and Manuel Mitasch in 2020 (video)
- 17 rings: 21 passes caught by Dominik Harant and Manuel Mitasch in 2020 (video)
- 18 rings: 19 passes caught by Dominik Harant and Manuel Mitasch in 2015 (video)

Unverified claims:

- 14 rings: 98 passes caught by Dominik Harant and Manuel Mitasch in 2016 (claim)

**3-person passing**

- 16 rings: 735 passes caught by Sean Gandini, Kati Ylä-Hokkala, and Anne Weber in 2024 (video)
- 17 rings: 312 passes caught by Sean Gandini, Kati Ylä-Hokkala, and Anne Weber in 2024 (video)
- 18 rings: 121 passes caught by Manuel Mitasch, Daniel Ledel, and Dominik Harant in 2016 (video)
- 19 rings: 89 passes caught by Chris Hodge, Noah Schmeissner, and Jonah Botvinick-Greenhouse in 2024 (video)
- 20 rings: 36 passes caught by Cameron Ford, Mark Pender-Bare, and Anne Weber in 2024 (video)
- 21 rings: 47 passes caught by Chris Hodge, Noah Schmeissner, and Jonah Botvinick-Greenhouse in 2024 (video)
- 22 rings: 22 passes caught by Petter Wadsten, Gustaf Rosell, and Arttu Lahtinen in 2024 (video)
- 23 rings: 25 passes caught by Chris Hodge, Noah Schmeissner, and Jonah Botvinick-Greenhouse in 2024 (video)
- 24 rings: 24 passes caught by Manuel Mitasch, Daniel Ledel, and Dominik Harant in 2016 (video)

Unverified claims:

- 21 rings: 65 passes caught by Jian Hua Qian, Jian Ping Qian, and Jian Wen Qian (claim)

**4-person passing**

- 20 rings: 317 passes caught by Sean Gandini, Kati Ylä-Hokkala, Manu Laude, and Iñaki Sastre in 2006 (video)
- 21 rings: 178 passes caught by Manuel Mitasch, Daniel Ledel, Dominik Harant, and Julius Preu in 2023 (video)
- 22 rings: 331 passes caught by Dominik Harant, Manuel Mitasch, Julius Preu, and Daniel Ledel in 2020 (video)
- 23 rings: 142 passes caught by Julius Preu, Dominik Harant, Manuel Mitasch, and Daniel Ledel in 2023 (video)
- 24 rings: 80 passes caught by Julius Preu, Dominik Harant, Manuel Mitasch, and Daniel Ledel in 2019 (video)
- 25 rings: 41 passes caught by Julius Preu, Dominik Harant, Manuel Mitasch, and Daniel Ledel in 2019 (video)
- 26 rings: 32 passes caught by Julius Preu, Dominik Harant, Manuel Mitasch, and Daniel Ledel in 2019 (video)
- 27 rings: 28 passes caught by Julius Preu, Dominik Harant, Manuel Mitasch, and Daniel Ledel in 2020 (video)
- 28 rings: 28 passes caught by Chris Hodge, Noah Schmeissner, Jonah Botvinick-Greenhouse, and Delaney Bayles in 2024 (video)

### Clubs[]

**2-person passing**

- 9 clubs: 1392 passes caught by Manuel Mitasch and Christoph Mitasch in 2007 (JISCON, video)
- 10 clubs: 808 passes caught by Daniel Ledel and Dominik Harant in 2017 video)
- 11 clubs: 264 passes caught by Daniel Ledel and Julius Preu in 2022 (video)
- 12 clubs: 101 passes caught by Daniel Ledel and Manuel Mitasch in 2016 (video)
- 13 clubs: 102 passes caught by Dominik Harant and Manuel Mitasch in 2022 (video)
- 14 clubs: 32 passes caught by Dominik Harant and Manuel Mitasch in 2020 (video)
- 15 clubs: 15 passes caught by Kaito and Kento Tanioka in 2021 (video)

Records with insufficient video evidence:

- 12 clubs: 138 passes caught by Daniel Ledel and Dominik Harant in 2014 (the lower half of the pattern isn't continuously visible in the video)

Unverified claims:

- 12 clubs: 180 passes caught by Daniel Ledel and Dominik Harant in 2014 (claim)

**3-person passing**

- 15 clubs: 180 passes caught by Manuel Mitasch, Daniel Ledel, and Dominik Harant in 2016 (video)
- 16 clubs: 151 passes caught by Manuel Mitasch, Daniel Ledel, and Dominik Harant in 2016 (video)
- 17 clubs: 106 passes caught by Manuel Mitasch, Daniel Ledel, and Dominik Harant in 2016 (video)
- 18 clubs: 40 passes caught by Manuel Mitasch, Daniel Ledel, and Dominik Harant in 2023 (video)

Unverified claims:

- 18 clubs: 68 passes caught? by Manuel Mitasch, Daniel Ledel, and Dominik Harant in 2016 (claim)

**5-person passing**

- 25 clubs: 74 passes caught by Moritz Rosner, Dominik Harant, Julius Preu, Manuel Mitasch, and Daniel Ledel in 2024 (video)

### Ball bouncing[]

**2-person passing**

- 11 balls: 7 minutes and 37 seconds by Dave Critchfield and John Jones in 2005 (Bounce Page, video)
- 12 balls: 3 minutes by Dave Critchfield and John Jones in 2002 (Bounce Page, video)
- 13 balls: 1 minute and 59 seconds by Vincent Bruel and Sylvain Garnavault in 2004 (Bounce Page, video)
- 14 balls: 365 passes caught by Dave Critchfield and John Jones in 2009 (Bounce Page, video)
- 15 balls: 173 passes caught by Christian Kloc and Adrian Goldwaser in 2022 (video)
- 16 balls: 74 passes caught by Dave Critchfield and John Jones in 2005 (Bounce Page, video)
- 17 balls: 50 passes caught by Christian Kloc and Adrian Goldwaser in 2022 (video)
- 18 balls: 30 passes caught by Dave Critchfield and John Jones in 2005 (Bounce Page, video)
- 19 balls: 20 passes caught by Dave Critchfield and John Jones in 2007 (video)

### Diabolos[]

**2-person passing**

- 5 diabolos: 155 passes caught by Valerian Kapeller and Dominik Lüthi in 2019 (video)
- 6 diabolos: 193 passes caught by Ronnie Slowinski and Guillaume Karpowicz in 2018 (video)
- 7 diabolos: 188 passes caught by Guillaume Karpowicz and Etienne Chauzy in 2018 (video)
- 8 diabolos: 38 passes caught by Guillaume Karpowicz and Etienne Chauzy in 2019 (video)
- 10 diabolos: 13 passes caught by Guillaume Karpowicz and Pieter Slachmuylders in 2016 (video)

## Siteswap notation for passing[]

A "throw" in passing siteswap notation is divided into multiple parts, the throwing instructions for each juggler. The notation <3|3> describes 2 jugglers each doing a 3 ball cascade. The "|" symbol separates throws made simultaneously by different jugglers. Normally the throws within a <|> are either all right-hand throws or all left-hand throws, but not all patterns have both right hands throwing at the same time. Juggling Lab uses the notation <R|L> before a pattern to indicate that one person throws with the right hand while the other person throws with the left hand.

A "p" after a number indicates that the throw is a pass. If the throw without a "p" would go to your left hand, the throw goes to your partner's left hand (on your right), and vice versa. If there are more than two jugglers, a number can be used after the "p" to indicate which juggler you're passing to, with the convention that the leftmost juggler in the <|> is juggler #1, the next is juggler #2, and so on. So for example, <3p|3p> and <3p2|3p1> each describe the same passing pattern, namely 6-object ultimates.

### 4-handed siteswap[]

4-handed siteswap is another notation system for passing. This system is for fully asynchronous patterns, where all four hands take turns throwing at separate times. A pattern like this can be written as either a global siteswap, listing all the throws from both people in the order they're made, or a local siteswap, which only shows the throws one person makes. A local siteswap always includes all the same throws as the equivalent global siteswap, but in a different order. When one person is starting a cycle of their local siteswap, the other person is halfway through making that same sequence of throws.

Numbers in a 4-handed siteswap don't represent the same kinds of throws as they would in a 2-handed siteswap. An even number in 4-handed siteswap is always a non-passed throw, the same kind of throw that would be notated as half that number in a solo siteswap. Odd numbers are passes. If the global throwing order is juggler #1 right hand, juggler #2 right hand, juggler #1 left hand, juggler #2 left hand, then juggler #1 passes diagonally when doing 1s, 5s, etc., and passes straight when doing 3s, 7s, etc., while juggler #2 does the opposite, passing straight when doing 1s, 5s, etc., and passing diagonally when doing 3s, 7s, etc. 1s and 3s are both done by placing an object directly into one of the other person's hands, or by making a quick horizontal throw to the other person.

## See also[]

- Three-handed patterns
- Five-handed patterns
- Shared patterns
- Steals
- Passing patterns category on Juggle Wiki

## External links[]

- Passing article on Wikipedia
- Passing DataBase
- PassingWiki
- Aerial Mirage Jugglers